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Personalized prevention and treatment programs based on the analysis of the genome and lifestyle interaction

Preventive genetics: questions and answers

What is a personalized approach to the patient?

Due to genetic variability, our ability to biotransformation and detoxification and, as a result, the susceptibility to diseases differs significantly. Consequently, our ability to adapt to the constantly changing environment is different. So different that the talks about dangers and benefits of some kind of diet, physical activities, certain food additives, vitamins and medicines, particular way of life are meaningless without a detailed study of the genetic inheritance of each individual.
Why everyone has a particular nature, unique only to him?

With the exception of identical twins all people have small differences in the DNA which are caused by different combinations of letters in the genetic alphabet (A, G, C and T). These combinations determine the personal genetic code, and without this diversity all people on earth would have looked the same. These differences account for only about 1% of the human DNA. It seems surprisingly small, as long until you remember that the human genome has 3 billion genetic “letters”, which means that a 1 percent means 30 million “letters”. This is more than enough to make each of us unique.

How do our genes work?

Genes are a molecular program that encodes the information for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes. Genes do not work themselves, they respond to internal and external signals, which enter the cell. Depending on the quality of the incoming signals, genes give a definite answer – gene expression, which defines, in turn, the quality of synthesized proteins.
Genes determine our appearance: if our eyes are brown or blue; what color is our hair; what form has our nose; what stature do we have, etc. They also affect the work, recovery (after illnesses, stresses, etc.) and maintenance of our body.

How do they do it?

They do all this work by participating in the production (synthesis) of different proteins. Each gene contains chemically coded instructions for synthesis of specific proteins. When “turned on”, gene cell sends the appropriate instructions on the special, cell-comprehensible language. The cells follow the instructions and begin the production of proteins that perform all the important work that is characteristic for a particular type of cells.

What is the role of genes in diseases?

Distribution of complex diseases is less predictable than the frequency of occurrence of diseases mediated with changes in a single gene. Due to the fact that they are caused by the simultaneous effect of several factors, each factor alone cannot initiate a disease. For example, a specific gene may determine predisposition to cancer, but a tumor disease development is possible only in combination of a given gene with other initiators of a disease such as exogenous factors and other genes. That is, the cause of the disease is not one specific gene, but the complex interaction of several genes with environmental factors.

What can be done to protect a person from the disease?

Knowledge of genetic variations allows you to modify the expression of a gene by changing environmental factors – location, food, stress, sport – which can play the role of activators or inhibitors of the function of genes. We can practically make our genes work for us following individually elaborated lifestyle and diet and stay healthy much longer than average life expectancy.

This approach, called “Personalized Prevention” will help to protect people from various multifactorial diseases caused by environmental hazards.

What kind of environmental factors is in question?

The potential initiators of diseases can be a polluted air and radiation, including a sun and toxic substances, as well as tobacco smoke and harmful chemicals in food and objects around us. In most cases, without the influence of such factors a person that is genetically predisposed to the disease will not fall ill. Often to make a genetic variation really dangerous for health, is required a long-term effect of such an initiator on the human body.

Is it possible to prevent complex diseases?

With the large amount of information about our genetic organization we begin to understand how variations in our genes may interact with our diet and lifestyle. Identification of these variations provides us with the ability to make informed choices – a choice based on complete information provided to us – what to eat and what kind of lifestyle lead that will maximize our chances of staying healthy as long as possible

What possibilities gives us the preventive genetics?

We can increase life expectancy by modulation of individual susceptibility to multifactorial diseases caused by harmful environmental factors.
Lifespan can be increased by an average of 14 years through genetic regulation based on prophylactic genetic testing.
We can help the patient to survive and avoid the major age-related diseases:
Hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, macular degeneration and cataracts, cancer, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, neurodegenerative disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease … and feel great, look young, be in good physical and psychological shape

How does it work?

It is necessary to make a genetic test, it is enough to make it once in a lifetime. Furthermore, we produce a meta-analysis of the large number of factors, studying the interaction between genes and between the environment and patient’s genes, consider the parameters of the interaction of nutrigenetics, ecogenetics, toxicogenetics, pharmacogenetics, psychogenetics, immunogenetics. We determine ways to influence the expression of genes of each particular patient.
In fact, DNA tests of metabolic genes and other risk-modifying genes show whether a patient leads a correct lifestyle (diet, habits, physical activity, and pharmacotherapy) or needs to change it.

Is it available?

Methods are available to every physician, if he wants to have a personalized program of prevention and treatment of his patient. Responding to the question: Why one person gets sick and another remains healthy? The doctor receives a response in the report, which reflects the individual genetic differences, lifestyle characteristics, food intake, exposure to various xenobiotics, individual differences in susceptibility to diseases.

Key points for the interpretation of genetic analysis

Most people have don’t have genes, for example, of breast cancer or Alzheimer’s disease, etc. There are genes that increase the susceptibility to, for example, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, etc., if a lifestyle contributes to this. On the contrary, having picked up an appropriate way of life, prevention and treatment, many diseases and their serious consequences can be prevented.
Genes “charge the gun,” but the environment “pulls the trigger”.

How is the report made out?

Knowing the genotype, we can trace the effects of exposure to Phenotype

Genotype -> RNA structure and function -> Protein sequence -> Protein Structure -> Protein function -> Phenotype

We analyze patient’s DNA polymorphisms
Copies number alteration (CNA)
DNA region in which there was a duplication or deletion of another segment of DNA
De novo: re-emerged under the influence of environmental factors, and not transmitted from parents
Hereditary: is defined also in organism of one or both parents
We group the analyzed polymorphisms in the table according to the effects on various metabolic processes

We study closely with reference to a questionnaire information about the patient’s lifestyle (nutrition, bad habits, physical activity, the impact on the body of xenobiotics, drugs …)

We study a risk of the pathological process and the possibility of leveling when changing the lifestyle.

Panel The report contains
FEMgen The risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women Estrogen metabolism. Detoxification of estrogen metabolites (4OH and 16 OH). Assessment of the risk of developing of breast, uterus, appendages cancer, etc. Selection of type and dose of hormone replacement therapy. Recommendations on diet and lifestyle.
OSTEOgen The risk of Osteoporosis development Bone metabolism (Vitamin D, collagen, osteogen receptors, inflammatory, calcium exchange)
Strengthening the bone mass to prevent osteoporosis. Recommendations on diet.
THROMBOgen The risk of deep vein thrombosis development Coagulation, hemostasis, metabolism of homocysteine. Early prevention of deep vein thrombosis, selection of type and dose of anticoagulants. Recommendations on diet and lifestyle.
PROSTATEgen The risk of prostate cancer development Metabolism of testosterone, choice of drugs and their dosage. Selection of diet and lifestyle, allowing to reduce the risk of cancer.
COLOgen Sporadic colon cancer Cell signaling, inflammation, cell cycle, apoptosis. Additional testing program Selection of diet and lifestyle allowing to reduce the risk of cancer.
DETOXgen Possibility of detoxification of phase 1 and 2 Assessment of the risk of cancer, other pathologies as a result of xenobiotics impact (pollution, tobacco, pesticides, toxins, heavy metals, solvents, etc.). Recommendations on diet and lifestyle.
nEUROgen Neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Lipid metabolism problems, detoxification processes, the iron metabolism of neurotransmitter, oxidative stress. Selection of diet and lifestyle allowing to reduce the risk of disease
LIPIDgen Lipid metabolism disorders Assessment of the risk of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke. LDL and HDL: Level, grip katabolism. Selection of nutrition, lifestyle, stress management, drugs, allowing to normalize metabolic disorders. Additional testing program.
DIABETOgen The risk of developing of type II diabetes Sensitivity to insulin, leptin, feeling of fullness, tendency to obesity, lipid metabolism disorders, selection of drugs and doses. Recommendations on diet and lifestyle.
CARDIOgen The risk of cardiovascular diseases Oxidative stress, risk of hypertension, homocysteine metabolic disorders, lipid metabolism, thrombosis. Recommendations on diet and lifestyle.
OXIgen Oxidative stress The ability of the enzyme’s own defense system to eliminate the excess amount of free radicals. The risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional testing program. Selection of medicines and their dosage.
MACULAgen Age-related macular degeneration The risk of senile macular dystrophy, recommendations on diet
DENTYgen The risk of periodontitis development Production of interleukin-1, which leads to flourishing of anaerobic flora, activation of osteoclasts
ALOPECIgen The risk of baldness in men and women Evaluation of the risk of baldness before the onset of clinical signs, selection of preventive therapy
NICOTINgen Nicotine addiction The risk of physical dependence on smoking, the choice of method
Weightgen Weight normalization Lipogenesis, Detoxification, Neurotransmitters, feeling of fullness, tendency to obesity. Selection of nutrition, lifestyle and exercise, stress management.
Skingen Dermagenetics Test The risk of skin diseases. Determination of skin aging factors. Collagen creation and rebuilding. Oxidative stress. Protective properties of the skin. Skin sensitivity, tendency to inflammation, choice of cosmetic products and methods, nutrition recommendations.
Well being Common genetic analysis The “Genomics welfare” Detoxification phases. The metabolism of homocysteine, lipids, glucose, mediators of inflammation, metabolism of nicotine and alcohol, anabolism\catabolism, neurotransmitters, exposure to stress. Recommendations on diet and nutritional supplements, lifestyle, physical activity, mental health, additional testing program.
Farmagen Monitoring the effectiveness of medicines Selection of INN as a substrate of enzyme systems of the patient and medicine dosage depending on the metabolism level.
Fitgen Selection of effective physical activities Power Consumption, Power exercises or endurance exercises, muscles capability, ability to recover from injury, motivation to exercising, heart and lung resources. Recommendations on nutrigenomics.
Emogen Tendency to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, dementia, addictions (smoking, alcohol, overeating), mood disorders, anxiety, memory status, attention, concentration Dopamine and serotonin metabolism, hyperhomocysteinemia, neurotransmitters concentration, level of prostaglandin E, FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5). Nutrigenomic recommendations, the response to treatment with psychotropic drugs.